Born in 570 ce in mecca, saudi arabia and died in 632 c. As islam expanded from the deserts of the arabian peninsula into the complex and urban societies of the once roman and. The majority of the worlds muslim population follows the sunni branch of islam, and approximately 1015% of all muslims follow the shiite shiite, shia, shia. Sunni islam, has denounced other sunni powers like the muslim brotherhood.
Of the total muslim population, 10% are shia muslims and 8790% are sunni muslims. Pdf exploring sunni and shiite history, demographics, and. In 622 he founded the first islamic state, a theocracy in medina, a city in western saudi arabia located north of mecca. Core practices called the five pillars of islam by sunni muslims are shahadah testimony to gods oneness and muhammads prophethood, salat daily ritual prayer, sawm the annual fast during the month of ramadanramazan, zakat charity, and hajj pilgrimage to. Sunni and shia islam part 1 world history khan academy. Imams, although this authority can be questioned if the imam is not righteous. Little is more contentious in history than problems over succession.
Islamic library shia islamic pdfs now in collaboration. From another answer that i made to a different question, the crux of the issue between sunnis and shiites started off as a successionist problem. Short and concise articles on a single subject in numerous languages. Twelver shia is the largest branch of shia islam, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of shias were twelvers.
There is no god but allah, muhammad is the messenger of allah, ali is the friend of allah. The site and the dilp are entirely supported by individual donors and well wishers. The sunni and shiite sects of islam encompass a wide spectrum of doctrine, opinion and schools of thought. As islam expanded from the deserts of the arabian peninsula into the complex and urban societies of the once roman and persian empires, muslims encountered new ethical. If you regularly visit this site and wish to show your appreciation, or if you wish to see further development of, please donate online. Shia muslims believe in temporary marriage where a couple enters in to wedlock for a preset period of time while sunni muslims believe in a more permanent marriage which ends only in divorce of in the case of the death of a spouse. Pdf on sep 28, 2019, muhammad alashari and others published. The islam religion was founded by mohammed in the seventh century.
Apr 23, 2019 sunni and shia muslims share the most fundamental islamic beliefs and articles of faith and are the two main subgroups in islam. This week sunni and shia muslims ushered in the islamic new year and the beginning of the holy month of muharram. The division among muslims is rooted from differences in political beliefs. They do differ, however, and that separation stemmed initially, not from spiritual distinctions, but political ones. What is the difference between sunni islam, shia islam and. Sunni islam and shiism only assumed their current forms in the ninth century, after the collection of the prophets sayings hadith and the end of the line of shia imams.
Others supported the muslim congregations ability to elect their next leader from the prophets. What is the difference between sunni and shiite muslimsand why does it matter. There is no concept of distant kindred in shia law. Mishkatul anwar the lamp niche for the best traditions.
The division between islams shiite minority and the sunni majority is deepening across the middle east. Though the two main sects within islam, sunni and shia, agree on most of the fundamental beliefs and practices of islam, a bitter split between the two goes back some 14 centuries. Moreover, most zaydis are less radical in their condemnation of the first and second muslim caliphs, abu bakr. Because they are just human, they can make mistakes in their interpretations of the quran and are not considered to be perfect. May 23, 2017 iran is a shia muslim majority state often in tension with sunni states and extremist groups like the islamic state or alqaeda.
The history of the sunni and shia split traces the origins of the split and the historic effects of the main divide within islam. From the earliest civilizations to the modern world, geography, religion, trade, and politics have bound peoples. Comparison of sunni and shia islam there are two main sects in islam. These are fundamental practices in the islamic faith. Shia usoolaldeen which path should you follow did allah tell muslims follow the quran and sunnah or the quran and ahlulbayt the practise of shia islam from sunni books the shia perspective on historical events. Al murajaat a shiisunni dialogueal murajaat a shii. They comprise about 85% of muslims, while shia muslims are the second largest denomination at over 10% of muslims. Shiite populations constitute a majority in iran, iraq, bahrain, and azerbaijan. The origins of the sunnishia split in islam by hussein abdulwaheed amin, editor of introduction the shia shahadah declaration of faith states. Jan 04, 2016 the sunni and shiite sects of islam encompass a wide spectrum of doctrine, opinion and schools of thought. Pdf this paper examines the history of sunni and shiite muslims, current demographics, beliefs and relations.
Many of these believers would become modern day shia. Tensions between sunnis and shias, exploited by regional rivals. Islam is based on quran and the teachings of islam is based on quran and the teachings of prophet muhammad pbuh. How conflicts within islam will shape the future, new york. Learn about shia adhan azan,the adhan is the islamic call to prayer. Although shi a muslims only constitute between 10% and % of the global muslim. The branches are in agreement on many aspects of islam, but there are considerable. Although shia muslims only constitute between 10% and % of the global muslim population, they. Differences between sunni, shia and ibadi islam wikipedia. The successor of the messenger of allah and his first caliph.
The dispute intensified greatly after the battle of karbala, in. Pakistan journal of islamic research vol 10, 2012 72 while shia law recognizes only two classes, i. Sunni muslims are the largest denomination of the islam religion. These have been documented in both sunnis and shia hadith literature.
Core practices called the five pillars of islam by sunni muslims are shahadah testimony to gods oneness and muhammads prophethood, salat daily ritual prayer, sawm the annual fast during the month of ramadanramazan, zakat charity, and hajj pilgrimage to the kaaba in mecca, if health and means permit. Jul 31, 2019 though the two main sects within islam, sunni and shia, agree on most of the fundamental beliefs and practices of islam, a bitter split between the two goes back some 14 centuries. Its name comes from the word sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the islamic prophet muhammad. Comparison of sunni and shia islam the muslim voice. The differences between sunni and shia muslims the words sunni and shia appear regularly in stories about the muslim world but few people know what they really mean. Iran is a shia muslim majority state often in tension with sunni states and extremist groups like the islamic state or alqaeda. Sunni islam is the largest denomination, although in some countries it is a minority. The practises of shia islam from quran and sunni books the quran translation by s. Divisions within sunni islamism run deep and are extremely important, both to the regional balance of power and to the united states efforts to combat terrorism, for example. The divide originated with a dispute over who should succeed the prophet muhammad as leader of the islamic faith he introduced.
In shia islam, imams are regarded as the direct successors of muhammad pbuh and chosen by allah. It is true that there are minor variations in the way they take their respective religious heads and attribute meaning to the history of the family of muhammads, however, cultural and political differences hold the most divisive power over the religious forces. While there are more of a population of sunnis in the world yet in some countries their are a majority of shia populated in them. Religious authority other than the quran authority to interpret islam lies with the ijma consensus of the muslim community. What are the differences between shia and sunni muslims. The majority of the worlds muslim population follows the sunni branch of islam, and approximately 1015% of all muslims follow the shiite shi ite, shi a, shia branch. Ignorance may be bliss, but it makes for bad policy. The majority of the worlds muslim population follows the sunni branch of islam, and approximately 1015% of all muslims follow the shiite shiite, shia, shia branch. Sunni and shia islam center for religion and civic culture. They chose sides following the death of the islamic prophet muhammad in ad 632.
A dispute over succession to islamic prophet muhammad as a caliph of the islamic community spread across various parts of the world, which led to the battle of jamal and battle of siffin. Shia political parties in power in baghdad 2005 2006 iraqi elections bring shia political parties to power in baghdad, and sunnishia sectarian violence intensifies. The zaydi sect is often described as closer to sunni islam than it is to twelver shiism. These are some of the key findings of mapping the global muslim population. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the history of the sunnis and shias like never before, in no time at all. Shia and sunni understanding of the religion of islam. Associate professor of history at creighton university in omaha, nebraska. What is the difference between sunni and shiite muslims. Sunnis have their historical roots in the majority group who followed abu bakr, an effective leader, as muhammads successor, instead of his cousin and soninlaw ali. Prophets sayings hadith and the end of the line of shia imams. Difference between shia and sunni compare the difference. Analysis of the iraq study group report the islam religion was founded by mohammed in the seventh century.
In sunni islam an imam is a leader of prayer in a mosque, like a priest is for christians. Sectarian conflict is becoming entrenched in a growing number of muslim countries and is threatening to fracture iraq and syria. Shia sunni discussion new pdf documents are added on daily basis. The difference between sunni and shia sects of islam are not to the gigantic proportions as most western literature assume. The majority of the worlds muslim population follows the sunni branch of islam, and approximately 1015% of all muslims follow the shiite. What students need to know by john calvert april 2010 vol. The split that divided them is almost as old as the.
What is the difference between sunni and shiite muslims and. Religion is important in muslim countries and understanding sunni and shia beliefs is important in understanding the modern muslim world. Aug, 20 the practises of shia islam from quran and sunni books the quran translation by s. This essay is excerpted from his book divisions within islam, part of a 10volume. Shia political parties in power in baghdad 2005 2006 iraqi elections bring shia political parties to power in baghdad, and sunni shia sectarian violence intensifies. For shias, the month also is a time to mourn the events that sparked the centuriesold schism between shia and sunni muslims. Shia, shia islam, sunni, sunni and shia, sunni and shia islam, sunni islam. Most shias between 68% and 80% live in just four countries. That is, who should take the place of muhammad as political, military, and spiritual leader of the m.
Sunni arab nationalists and sunni arab monarchists, the sectarian divisions become blurred when considering sunni islamists. Excellent for quick reading, muslim centers or places of learning, dawah purposes, or to. If you regularly visit this site and wish to show your appreciation, or if you wish to see further development of al islam. Sunni shia unity islam by ahmad deedat, south africatranscript of a lecture by shaykh ahmad deedat following his visit to iran in 1982. The arab uprisings and the rebirth of the shiasunni divide 2 the sunni in lebanon believe that by confronting hizballah they are fighting for all sunni, especial. We should not really treat either if your shia or a sunni to the. The sunni branch believes that the first four caliphsmohammeds successorsrightfully took his. As you know in islam, their are two major sects, the sunnis and the shia. First of all let me give introduction of important persons from the history of islam so that you can understand what exactly is the dispute. The sunnishia split after mohammeds death there is a conflict over who should lead the religion of islam sunni muslims supported abu bakr as the first caliph of the muslim faith the first group of shia were a small group who opposed bakr and wanted a man named ali to take control 6. As a scholar of islam and a public educator, i often field. Shia and sunni islam are the two major denominations of islam.1553 372 28 943 765 765 936 432 1303 1654 1158 48 153 1392 1175 605 1600 1562 936 1091 967 197 1193 182 1011 1630 731 1525 572 1010 1342 1052 248 436 530 1007 537 1049 59 754 129 1017 154